Can It Be Worse?
Rashi explains that any time Hashem brings a punishment on Klal Yisrael it includes partial punishment for the Chait Ha'aigel.
Rebbe Chanoch Henoch of Alexander zy'a (Siach Sarfei Kodesh) explained it this way:
Every time Hashem punishes klal yisrael He is telling them, look at the Chet Ha'aigel, how terrible and disloyal it was, and even so, the Yidden did Teshuva and their Teshuva was accepted. Is what you did now any worse, that Teshuva cannot be done?